Clinicopathological Aspects and Inflammation-Immune Markers in Alcohol and/or Hepatitis C Virus-Induced Hepatocellular Carcinoma Patients Treated With Sorafenib

Thiago Alexandre Martins Pinto, Helena Paes Almeida Saito, Carolina Lopes Nourani, Elaine Cristina Ataide, Ilka Fatima Santana Ferreira Boin, Gustavo Jacob Lourenco, Carmen Silvia Passos Lima


Background: Tyrosine kinase inhibitors have been used to treat hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), but the outcomes of patients under treatment vary. Since the roles of clinicopathological aspects and markers of chronic inflammation/immune homeostasis in the outcome of HCC patients treated with sorafenib are still unclear, these were the aims of this study.

Methods: Patients with alcohol-induced and/or hepatitis C virus (HCV)-induced HCC (n = 182) uniformly treated with sorafenib were included in the study. Baseline clinicopathological aspects of patients were computed from the medical records. The neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR), lymphocyte-to-monocyte ratio (LMR), systemic inflammation response index (SIRI), and systemic immune-inflammation index (SII) were obtained from the hematological exam performed before the administration of sorafenib. Overall survival (OS) was analyzed using Kaplan-Meier probabilities, log-rank test, and univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazard ratio (HR) analyses.

Results: In multivariate analysis, alpha-foetoprotein (AFP) level and Child-Pugh score were predictors of OS. Patients with AFP levels higher than 157 ng/mL and Child-Pugh B or C had 1.40 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.03 - 1.91, P = 0.03) and 1.64 (95% CI: 1.07 - 2.52, P = 0.02) more chances of evolving to death than the remaining patients, respectively. NLR, PLR, LMR, SIRI, and SII did not alter the OS of HCC patients.

Conclusions: AFP level and Child-Pugh score act as independent prognostic factors in patients with alcohol and/or HCV-induced HCC treated with sorafenib, but markers of chronic inflammation/immune homeostasis seem not to alter the outcome of patients with HCC induced by alcohol and/or HCV.

Gastroenterol Res. 2024;17(1):23-31


Hepatocellular carcinoma; Lymphocyte-to-monocyte ratio; Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio; Platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio; Prognosis; SIRI; SII; Sorafenib

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