Effects of Helicobacter pylori Infection on the Prognosis of Chronic Atrophic Gastritis by Inducing the Macrophage Polarization

Chun Na Zhao, Li Li Xiao, Ying Zhang


Background: Recently, the effects of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection on the prognosis of chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG) are still unclear. The aim of our study was to discuss the role of H. pylori infection on the prognosis of CAG by inducing the M1/M2 macrophage polarization.

Methods: A total of 180 subjects as control (group 1), CAG patients without H. pylori infection (group 2) and H. pylori-associated CAG patients (group 3) were respectively recruited for this cross-sectional investigation in Daqing Oilfield General Hospital from May 2019 to July 2020. Their serum samples were collected to determine the concentrations of pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines. Meanwhile, the gastric mucosa was excised to determine the related gene expressions on the M1/M2 macrophage polarization. Then the prognosis of CAG was evaluated according to the status of clinical manifestations and endoscopic examination after the follow-up.

Results: Notably, it was proved that compared with the control group, the expressions and concentrations of pro-inflammatory cytokines (M1 macrophage: inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), and interleukin-6 (IL-6)) were significantly higher, while the anti-inflammatory cytokines (M2 macrophage: arginase-1 (Arg-1), IL-4 and IL-10) were apparently reduced in the group 2 and group 3 (P < 0.05). Moreover, more days were needed for the prognosis of CAG in group 3 than those in group 2, which was accompanied by higher expressions of pro-inflammatory and lower anti-inflammatory cytokines at the baseline (P < 0.05). Furthermore, negative correlations were shown between the concentrations of iNOS, TNF-alpha, IFN-gamma and IL-6, and the prognosis of CAG (P < 0.05), while positive correlations were observed between the contents of IL-4 and IL-10, and prognosis of CAG (P < 0.05).

Conclusion: These above results indicated that H. pylori infection-induced disorders of M1/M2 macrophage polarization could affect the prognosis of CAG.

Gastroenterol Res. 2023;16(4):226-233
doi: https://doi.org/10.14740/gr1636


Chronic atrophic gastritis; Helicobacter pylori; Macrophage polarization; Pro-inflammatory; Anti-inflammatory

Full Text: HTML PDF

Browse  Journals  


Journal of Clinical Medicine Research

Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism

Journal of Clinical Gynecology and Obstetrics


World Journal of Oncology

Gastroenterology Research

Journal of Hematology


Journal of Medical Cases

Journal of Current Surgery

Clinical Infection and Immunity


Cardiology Research

World Journal of Nephrology and Urology

Cellular and Molecular Medicine Research


Journal of Neurology Research

International Journal of Clinical Pediatrics



Gastroenterology Research, bimonthly, ISSN 1918-2805 (print), 1918-2813 (online), published by Elmer Press Inc.                     
The content of this site is intended for health care professionals.

This is an open-access journal distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License, which permits unrestricted
non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Creative Commons Attribution license (Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International CC-BY-NC 4.0)

This journal follows the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) recommendations for manuscripts submitted to biomedical journals,
the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) guidelines, and the Principles of Transparency and Best Practice in Scholarly Publishing.

website: www.gastrores.org   editorial contact: editor@gastrores.org
Address: 9225 Leslie Street, Suite 201, Richmond Hill, Ontario, L4B 3H6, Canada

© Elmer Press Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Disclaimer: The views and opinions expressed in the published articles are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views or opinions of the editors and Elmer Press Inc. This website is provided for medical research and informational purposes only and does not constitute any medical advice or professional services. The information provided in this journal should not be used for diagnosis and treatment, those seeking medical advice should always consult with a licensed physician.