Cytomegalovirus Infection Is Associated With Adverse Outcomes Among Hospitalized Pediatric Patients With Inflammatory Bowel Disease

Aravind Thavamani, Krishna Kishore Umapathi, Thomas J. Sferra, Senthilkumar Sankararaman


Background: Adults with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are at increased risk of developing cytomegalovirus (CMV) colitis, which is associated with adverse outcomes. Similar studies in pediatric IBD patients are lacking.

Methods: We analyzed non-overlapping years of National Inpatient Sample (NIS) and Kids Inpatient Database (KID) between 2003 and 2016. We included all patients < 21 years with a diagnosis of Crohns disease (CD) or ulcerative colitis (UC). Patients with coexisting CMV infection during that admission were compared with patients without CMV infection for outcome measures such as in-hospital mortality, disease severity, and healthcare resource utilization.

Results: We analyzed a total of 254,839 IBD-related hospitalizations. The overall prevalence rate of CMV infection was 0.3% with an overall increasing prevalence trend, P < 0.001. Approximately two-thirds of patients with CMV infection had UC, which was associated with almost 3.6 times increased risk of CMV infection (confidence interval (CI): 3.11 to 4.31, P < 0.001). IBD patients with CMV had more comorbid conditions. CMV infection was significantly associated with increased odds of in-hospital mortality (odds ratio (OR): 3.58; CI: 1.85 to 6.93, P < 0.001) and severe IBD (OR: 3.31; CI: 2.54 to 4.32, P < 0.001). CMV-related IBD hospitalizations had increased length of stay by 9 days while incurring almost $65,000 higher hospitalization charges, P < 0.001.

Conclusions: The prevalence of CMV infection is increasing in pediatric IBD patients. CMV infections significantly corelated with increased risk of mortality and severity of IBD leading to prolonged hospital stay and higher hospitalization charges. Further prospective studies are needed to better understand the factors leading to this increasing CMV infection.

Gastroenterol Res. 2023;16(1):1-8


Inflammatory bowel disease; Cytomegalovirus infection; Ulcerative colitis; Crohn’s disease; CMV colitis; Population-based study; Health care utilization; Mortality

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