Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt Outcomes in the Elderly Population: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Zohaib Ahmed, Umer Farooq, Syeda Faiza Arif, Muhammad Aziz, Umair Iqbal, Ahmad Nawaz, Wade Lee-Smith, Joyce Badal, Asif Mahmood, Abdallah Kobeissy, Ali Nawras, Mona Hassan, Sammy Saab


Background: Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) is a procedure typically utilized to treat refractory ascites and variceal bleeding. However, TIPS can lead to significant complications, most commonly hepatic encephalopathy (HE). Advanced age has been described as a risk factor for HE, as the elderly population tends to have decreased cognitive reserve and increased sarcopenia. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of the available literature to summarize the association between advanced age and risk of adverse events after undergoing TIPS.

Methods: A comprehensive search strategy to identify reports of specific outcomes (HE, 30-day and 90-day mortality, and 30-day readmission due to HE) in elderly patients after undergoing TIPS was developed in Embase (, Elsevier). We compared outcomes and performed separate data analyses for patients aged < 70 vs. > 70 years and patients aged < 65 vs. > 65 years.

Results: Six studies with a total of 1,591 patients met our inclusion criteria and were included in the final meta-analysis. Three studies divided patients by age < 65 vs. > 65 years, with a total of 816 patients who were 54% male. The remaining three studies divided patients by age < 70 vs. > 70 years, with a total of 775 patients who were 63% male. Results demonstrated a significantly lower risk of post-TIPS HE (risk ratio (RR): 0.42, confidence interval (CI): 0.185 - 0.953, P = 0.03, I2 = 49%), 30-day mortality (RR: 0.37, CI: 0.188 - 0.74, P = 0.005, I2 = 0%), and 90-day mortality (RR: 0.35, CI: 0.24 - 0.49, P = 0.001, I2 = 0%) in patients aged > 70 vs. < 70 years, as well as a trend towards lower risk of 30-day readmission due to HE. There was no significant difference in post-TIPS HE, 30-day or 90-day mortality, or 30-day readmission due to HE between patients aged < 65 vs. > 65 years.

Conclusion: Age > 70 years is associated with significantly higher rates of HE and 30-day and 90-day mortality rates in patients after undergoing TIPS, as well as a trend towards higher 30-day readmission due to HE.

Gastroenterol Res. 2022;15(6):325-333


Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt; Variceal bleeding; Refractory ascites; Mortality; Morbidity; Hepatic encephalopathy; Elderly age

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