Prophylactic Biliary Stenting Before Cholecystectomy in Patients With Gallstones and Common Bile Duct Stones

Hideaki Kawabata, Yukino Kawakatsu, Katsutoshi Yamaguchi, Daiki Sone, Naonori Inoue, Yuki Ueda, Yuji Okazaki, Misuzu Hitomi, Masatoshi Miyata, Shigehiro Motoi, Kenichirou Fukuda, Yoshihiro Shimizu

Abstract


Background: The usefulness of prophylactic biliary stenting for patients with common bile duct stones (CBDS) and gallstones (GS) to prevent recurrent biliary events after endoscopic sphincterotomy (EST) and CBDS extraction before elective cholecystectomy remains controversial. The aim of this study was to evaluate the risk of recurrent CBDS around the perioperative period and clarify its risk factors.

Methods: The clinical data of all patients who received prophylactic biliary stenting after EST for CBDS and later underwent cholecystectomy for GS followed by stent extraction in our institution were retrospectively reviewed. The numbers of residual CBDS at the end first and second endoscopic retrograde cholangiography (ERC) studies were compared. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed using a logistic regression model to determine risk factors for recurrent CBDS in the perioperative period.

Results: Forty-two consecutive patients received prophylactic biliary stenting and subsequent cholecystectomy for GS. Three of these patients were excluded from this study because the number of residual stones was not confirmed. The median maximum CBDS diameter at second ERC was 0 mm (range, 0 - 10 mm); six patients had multiple CBDS (≥ 5). The number of CBDS at second ERC was increased in comparison to that at the first ERC in 15 patients (38.4%), and was unchanged or decreased in 24 patients. The median minimum cystic duct diameter was 4 mm (range, 1 - 8 mm). The median interval between first ERC and operation was 26 days (range, 2 - 131 days). The median interval between operation and second ERC was 41 days (range, 26 - 96 days). Laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) was performed in 38 patients, one of whom was converted from LC to open cholecystectomy. Postoperative complications (transient bacteremia) occurred in one patient. The cystic duct diameter was an independent risk factor for an increased number of CBDS at second ERC in the multivariate analysis (odds ratio 0.611 (95% confidence interval (0.398 - 0.939)), P = 0.03).

Conclusion: Recurrent CBDS around the perioperative period of cholecystectomy is not a rare complication after EST and the removal of CBDS with concomitant GS. Prophylactic biliary stenting is considered useful for preventing CBDS-associated complications, especially for patients in whom the cystic duct diameter is larger (≥ 5 mm).




Gastroenterol Res. 2019;12(4):191-197
doi: https://doi.org/10.14740/gr1207


Keywords


CBD stone; Gallstone; Biliary stent; Endoscopic sphincterotomy; Cholecystectomy

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