Once Versus Twice-Daily Oral Proton Pump Inhibitor Therapy for Prevention of Peptic Ulcer Rebleeding: A Propensity Score-Matched Analysis

Fares Ayoub, Vikas Khullar, Debdeep Banerjee, Patrick Stoner, Tiffany Lambrou, Donevan R. Westerveld, Wissam Hanayneh, Amir Y. Kamel, David Estores


Background: After inpatient management of upper gastrointestinal bleeding (GIB) due to peptic ulcer disease (PUD), oral proton pump inhibitor (PPI) therapy is recommended at discharge to decrease rebleeding risk and improve ulcer healing. Our aim is to determine whether once-daily oral PPI dosing at hospital discharge is associated with inferior 30-day rebleeding outcomes as compared to twice-daily dosing.

Methods: We retrospectively identified 233 patients admitted with signs and symptoms of upper GIB found to be due to PUD on upper endoscopy. After inpatient management, patients discharged on once-daily oral PPI were compared to those discharged on twice-daily therapy. We utilized propensity score matching based on Rockall scores to ensure the two groups were closely matched in terms of their baseline rebleeding risk. Primary outcome was the incidence of rebleeding within 30 days. Secondary outcomes were all-cause mortality, blood transfusion requirement, requirement for interventional radiology or surgery.

Results: Overall, 49 patients were discharged on once-daily and 184 on twice-daily PPI. Recurrent bleeding occurred in 18 patients (7.7%) within 30 days. There was no statistically significant difference in recurrent bleeding rates between once-daily (n = 7, 14.3%) as compared to twice-daily PPI (n = 11, 6%) (P = 0.053). In a 1:1 propensity score matched analysis, there was no statistically significant difference in 30-day recurrent bleeding rate between groups (14% once-daily vs. 4% twice-daily, P = 0.159). There were no differences in secondary outcomes.

Conclusions: Once-daily oral PPI dosing at hospital discharge was not associated with inferior outcomes compared to twice-daily dosing in patients hospitalized for upper GIB due to PUD.

Gastroenterol Res. 2018;11(3):200-206
doi: https://doi.org/10.14740/gr1011w


Proton pump inhibitor; Peptic ulcer disease; Upper gastrointestinal bleeding; Non-variceal gastrointestinal bleeding; Dosing

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