Transnasal Endoscopy for Children and Adolescents With Eosinophilic Esophagitis: A Single-Center Experience

Ramy Mahmoud Mohamed Sabe, Alaa Elzayat, Andrew Buckley, Jay Rajendra Shah, Ali Salar Khalili, Thomas Joseph Sferra

Abstract


Background: Transnasal endoscopy (TNE) has been introduced in the care of pediatric patients with eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) who require repeated esophagoscopies. TNE, as compared to conventional endoscopy, is less invasive and avoids sedation or anesthesia allowing for frequent assessments of the esophageal mucosa when making management decisions. The aim of this study is to review our early experience with TNE.

Methods: We extracted data from all patients with EoE who underwent TNE at UH Rainbow Babies & Children’s Hospital, Cleveland, Ohio from December 2018 to April 2021. We assessed total visit time, procedure time, success rate, and complications. Data are presented as percentages or medians with interquartile ranges (IQRs). Comparisons were made using Chi-square (and Fisher’s exact) test for categorical data, Mann-Whitney test and the unpaired t-test for non-normally distributed and normally distributed data, respectively.

Results: Thirty-three patients underwent 65 TNE procedures during our study period. The male-to-female ratio was 4.5:1 and median age was 13 years (IQR: 10 - 15 years; range: 4 - 20 years). Sixty-three (96.9%) of 65 procedures were completed. Distraction methods were used in all procedures (virtual reality goggles in 19.3% and television in 80.7%). Isolated elevated blood pressure (BP) measurements prior to the procedure were more frequent in those undergoing TNE as compared to sedated esophagogastroduodenoscopy (P = 0.04). We also calculated the heart rate (HR) for patients undergoing TNE and sedated upper endoscopy; no difference was noted (P = 0.71). Only minor adverse events occurred with TNE: nosebleed (n = 1), pre-syncope (n = 1), and pain (n = 4). None of the patients who underwent a sedated upper endoscopy developed an event. Two TNE procedures were not completed due to an inability to traverse the upper esophageal sphincter.

Conclusions: We demonstrate TNE is an efficient and well-tolerated means of monitoring patients with EoE. Various straight forward distraction methods may contribute to the successful completion of the procedure. The safety as compared to conventional esophagoscopy requires large multicenter studies.




Gastroenterol Res. 2022;15(4):155-161
doi: https://doi.org/10.14740/gr1535

Keywords


Transanal endoscopy; Unsedated; Eosinophilic esophagitis; Children; Adolescents

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