Hepatopulmonary Syndrome: A Nationwide Analysis of Epidemiological Trends and Outcomes From 2012 to 2018

Dushyant Singh Dahiya, Asim Kichloo, Hafeez Shaka, Jagmeet Singh, Gurdeep Singh, Farah Wani, Sundas Masudi, Hazique Koul, Sailaja Pisipati


Background: This study was designed to determine the epidemiological trends and adverse outcomes of hepatopulmonary syndrome (HPS).

Methods: This retrospective interrupted trend study analyzed data from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) for the years 2012, 2014, 2016 and 2018 to identify adult (>= 18 years) hospitalizations with a diagnosis of HPS. We highlighted epidemiological trends for HPS. Inpatient mortality, mean length of stay (LOS) and mean total hospital charge (THC) were estimated using multivariate regression trend analysis.

Results: We observed an increase in the total number of HPS hospitalizations from 1,565 in 2012 to 2,495 in 2018, with mean age ranging from 55.8 to 58.1 years. There was a trend towards increasing hospitalizations (P-trend < 0.001) with increasing mean age (P-trend = 0.003) for HPS. Whites made up most of the study population. The inpatient mortality for HPS ranged from 12.4% to 12.6%, but there was no statistically significant trend for mortality (P-trend = 0.534) between 2012 and 2018. Additionally, there was no change in both mean LOS (P-trend = 0.545) and mean THC (P-trend = 0.534) for HPS for these years.

Conclusions: Hospitalizations and mean age for HPS were on the rise. Inpatient mortality ranged from 12.4% to 12.6%; however, a statistically significant trend for mortality was absent.

Gastroenterol Res. 2021;14(4):252-258
doi: https://doi.org/10.14740/gr1448


Hepatopulmonary syndrome; Epidemiology; Outcomes; Total hospital charge; Length of stay; Mortality

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