Outcomes of Non-Variceal Upper Gastrointestinal Bleed Stratified by Hospital Teaching Status: Insights From the National Inpatient Sample

Jennifer C. Asotibe, Hafeez Shaka, Emmanuel Akuna, Niveda Shekar, Hassam Shah, Marcelo Ramirez, Syed Ali Amir Sherazi, Katayoun Khoshbin, Hemant Mutneja, Bashar Attar

Abstract


Background: Non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding (NVUGIB) is a significant cause of mortality and morbidity in the USA. Currently, there are limited data on the inpatient outcomes of patients admitted with a diagnosis of NVUGIB stratified according to teaching hospital status. We analyzed data from the National Inpatient Sample (NIS) intending to evaluate these outcomes.

Methods: We queried the NIS 2016 and 2017 databases for NVUGIB hospitalizations by teaching hospital status. The primary outcome was inpatient mortality while secondary outcomes were rate of endoscopy for hemostasis, rate of early endoscopy (endoscopy in 1 day or less), mean time to endoscopy, rate of complications including acute kidney injury (AKI), acute respiratory failure (ARF), need for blood transfusion, development of sepsis, need for endotracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation as well as healthcare utilization.

Results: There were over 71 million weighted discharges in the combined 2016 and 2017 NIS database. A total of 94,900 NVUGIB cases were identified with 63.4% admitted in teaching hospitals. The in-hospital mortality for patients admitted with an NVUGIB in teaching hospitals was 1.98% compared to 1.5% in non-teaching hospitals (adjusted odds ratio (aOR): 1.38, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.08 - 1.77, P = 0.010) when adjusted for biodemographic and hospital characteristics as well as comorbidities. Patients admitted with a diagnosis of NVUGIB in teaching hospitals had a 10% adjusted increased odds of getting endoscopy for hemostasis (27.0% vs. 24.5%, aOR: 1.10, 95% CI: 1.02 - 1.19, P = 0.016) compared to patients in non-teaching hospitals. There was, however, no difference in early endoscopy between the two groups.

Conclusion: Patients admitted at teaching hospitals for an NVUGIB had worse outcomes during hospitalizations including mortality, median length of stay, and total hospital charges when compared to NVUGIB patients managed at non-teaching hospitals.




Gastroenterol Res. 2021;14(5):268-274
doi: https://doi.org/10.14740/gr1437

Keywords


Non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding; Teaching hospital; Non-teaching hospital; Length of stay; Mortality; Total hospital charges

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