A Focused Review on Recent Advances in the Diagnosis and Treatment of Viral Hepatitis

Wei Zhang, Mahmoud Aryan, Steve Qian, Roniel Cabrera, Xiuli Liu

Abstract


The global burden of viral hepatitis remains substantial despite advances in antiviral therapy and effective vaccines. There are five hepatitis viruses (hepatitis A, B, C, D, and E). Mortality related to hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus infections is among the top four global infectious diseases, together with human immunodeficiency virus infection, malaria, and tuberculosis. Of those deaths, approximately 47% are attributable to hepatitis B virus, 48% to hepatitis C virus and the remainder to hepatitis A virus and hepatitis E virus. Ending hepatitis epidemics as a major public health threat is feasible with the tools and approaches currently available. Effective vaccines are available for preventing viral hepatitis A, B and E infections. New oral, well-tolerated treatment regimens for chronic hepatitis C patients can achieve cure rates of over 90%. Effective treatment is also available for people with chronic hepatitis B virus infection; although for most people such treatment needs to be long-term, and recent advanced aim at a “functional cure†of hepatitis B. In this review article, we discuss the most recent advances of the diagnosis and treatment of viral hepatitis.




Gastroenterol Res. 2021;14(3):139-156
doi: https://doi.org/10.14740/gr1405

Keywords


Cirrhosis; Direct antiviral agents; Hepatitis A; Hepatitis B; Hepatic C; Hepatocellular carcinoma; Hepatitis D; Hepatitis E

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