Safety and Efficacy of Nitazoxanide-Based Regimen for the Eradication of Helicobacter pylori Infection: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Umair Iqbal, Harshit S. Khara, Daud Akhtar, Yirui Hu, Hafsa Anwar, Khwaja F. Haq, Hafiz U. Siddiqui, Marika K. Bergenstock, Matthew J. Shellenberger


Background: Helicobacter pylori (HP) is the most common cause of gastritis worldwide. Clarithromycin-based triple therapy or bismuth-based quadruple therapy is usually considered the first-line treatment, however with around 30% failure rate for both regimens. Drug resistance of clarithromycin and metronidazole is a growing concern in some parts of the world. Therefore, there is a need for effective eradication regimen for HP. Nitazoxanide, a bactericidal thiazolide antibiotic, has been shown to be effective in HP infection. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the efficacy of nitazoxanide-based regimen for the eradication of HP.

Methods: We have searched PubMed, Embase, Ovid Medline and Cochrane library database from inception to December 9, 2020 to identify studies that utilized nitazoxanide in the treatment regimen for HP eradication. Our primary outcome was pooled eradication rate of HP.

Results: Thirteen studies including 1,028 patients met our inclusion criteria and were analyzed in a meta-analysis. HP eradication was successful in 867 patients with a pooled eradication rate of 86% (95% confidence interval (CI): 79-90%) with 84% heterogeneity. A subgroup analysis that included 230 patients who failed other prior eradication regimens revealed a pooled eradication rate of 85% (95% CI: 69-94%) without heterogeneity. In a subgroup analysis, highest eradication rates were achieved with levofloxacin, doxycycline, nitazoxanide and proton pump inhibitor with a pooled eradication rate of 92% (88-95%).

Conclusion: Nitazoxanide-based regimen is safe and effective in the eradication of HP infection. It is also successful as a salvage therapy in patients who have failed prior treatments.

Gastroenterol Res. 2020;13(6):260-268


Nitazoxanide; Helicobacter pylori; Eradication regimen; Meta-analysis

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