Clinical Presentation, Diagnosis, and Management of Air Embolism During Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography

Muhammad Haisum Maqsood, Nayab Mirza, Muhammad Asad Hanif, Hira Hanif, Maleeha Saleem, Muhammad Arqam Maqsood, Ilsa Fatima, Muhammad Moiz Tahir


Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) is a minimally invasive procedure that is widely used by endoscopists and has a robust therapeutic profile. It uses endoscopy and imaging for a variety of diagnostic as well as therapeutic purposes. It is used for the management of a lot of pancreaticobiliary diseases such as obstructive jaundice, obstruction related to bile ducts, pancreatic biliary tumors, and traumatic or iatrogenic damage to the bile ducts. Other therapeutic interventions that can be done via ERCP include sphincterotomy, dilation of strictures, removal of biliary stones and placement of stents. Air embolism presents with cardiovascular, pulmonary, and neurologic signs and symptoms. Treatment of air embolism should be started early in suspected cases, and it should be in the differential diagnoses of various complications secondary to high risk of ERCP, especially if a cardiopulmonary compromise is present. Air embolism is rare but a serious complication associated with ERCP. The physicians must keep this in mind while performing ERCP in patients with predisposing risk factors. This review highlights the mechanism, causes, risk factors, pathophysiology, clinical signs, diagnostic modalities, treatment, and preventive measures to deal with this catastrophic complication.

Gastroenterol Res. 2019;12(6):283-287


Air embolism; Pancreaticobiliary diseases; Endoscopy; Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography; Complications; Therapeutic procedure; Precordial Doppler ultrasound

Full Text: HTML PDF

Browse  Journals  


Journal of clinical Medicine Research

Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism

Journal of Clinical Gynecology and Obstetrics

World Journal of Oncology

Gastroenterology Research

Journal of Hematology

Journal of Medical Cases

Journal of Current Surgery

Clinical Infection and Immunity

Cardiology Research

World Journal of Nephrology and Urology

Cellular and Molecular Medicine Research

Journal of Neurology Research

International Journal of Clinical Pediatrics






Gastroenterology Research, bimonthly, ISSN 1918-2805 (print), 1918-2813 (online), published by Elmer Press Inc.             
The content of this site is intended for health care professionals.

This is an open-access journal distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License, which permits unrestricted
non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Creative Commons Attribution license (Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International CC-BY-NC 4.0)

This journal follows the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) recommendations for manuscripts submitted to biomedical journals,
the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) guidelines, and the Principles of Transparency and Best Practice in Scholarly Publishing.

website:   editorial contact:
Address: 9225 Leslie Street, Suite 201, Richmond Hill, Ontario, L4B 3H6, Canada

© Elmer Press Inc. All Rights Reserved.