Non-Operative Management of Type 2 ERCP-Related Retroperitoneal Duodenal Perforations: A 9-Year Experience From a Single Center

Vasileios Theopistos, Georgios Theocharis, Christos Konstantakis, Panagiotis Kitrou, Ioannis Kehagias, Christos Triantos, Konstantinos Thomopoulos


Background: No consensus exists on treatment of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) -related, retroperitoneal duodenal perforations. The aim of this study is to determine the incidence of post-ERCP retroperitoneal periampullary (type 2) duodenal perforations and the clinical outcome of non-surgical management.

Methods: Patients who underwent ERCP in our institution during the period from January 1, 2009 to December 31, 2017 were included. Any cases of retroperitoneal periampullary duodenal (type 2) perforation were identified. Relevant data (patient characteristics, indications, radiographic findings, time to diagnosis and surgery, surgical procedures, hospital stay and outcome) were retrospectively collected and reviewed. Results were compared to those from the existing literature.

Results: There were 24 patients with retroperitoneal type 2 duodenal perforation following 4,196 ERCPs were identified (24/4196, 0.57%) over the 9-year period. ERCP indications were: choledocholithiasis, obstructive jaundice and ampullectomy (ampullary adenoma). Diagnosis (aided by CT scan) was established within the first 12 h in the majority of patients (21/24, 87.5%) and intraprocedural in 3/24, (12.5%). Twelve patients (50%) with deteriorating clinical course were managed with CT-guided percutaneous drainage. Surgical intervention was required in two (8.3%). Overall mortality was 4.2%, 1/24 (one patient died after surgery).

Conclusions: Retroperitoneal duodenal perforation is a rare and severe ERCP complication. However, conservative management is feasible in the majority of cases.

Gastroenterol Res. 2018;11(3):207-212


Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography; Perforation; Iatrogenic; Endoscopy

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