Gastroenterology Research, ISSN 1918-2805 print, 1918-2813 online, Open Access
Article copyright, the authors; Journal compilation copyright, Gastroenterol Res and Elmer Press Inc
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Volume 12, Number 5, October 2019, pages 233-244

Functional, Diagnostic and Therapeutic Aspects of Gastrointestinal Hormones


Table 1. Classification of GI Hormones
GI: gastrointestinal; GIP: gastric inhibitory peptide; VIP: vasoactive intestinal peptide.
1. Gastrin-cholecystokinin familyGastrin and cholecystokinin
2. Secretin familySecretin, glucagon, glicentin, VIP and GIP
3. Somatostatin familySomatostatin
4. Motilin familyMotilin, gherlin, obestatin
5. Substance PSubstance P


Table 2. GI Hormones With Cells, Sites of Origin, Diagnostic and Therapeutic Uses
GI hormoneCells and sites of originDiagnostic useTherapeutic use
GI: gastrointestinal; CCK: cholecystokinin; ERCP: endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography; ESWL: extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy; MRCP: magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography; CIPO: chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction; GRP: gastrin-releasing peptide; GIP: gastric inhibitory peptide; GLP: glucagon-like peptide; NAFLD: non-alcoholic fatty liver disease; SBS: short bowel syndrome; NK-1: neurokinin-1; GC-C: guanylate cyclase-C; IBS-C: irritable bowel syndrome with predominant constipation; CIC: chronic idiopathic constipation.
GastrinG cells in gastric antrum.1) Fasting serum gastrin and secretin suppression test to evaluate hypergastrinemia.
2) Pentagastrin stimulation test for early diagnosis of medullary carcinoma of thyroid.
3) Pentagastrin stimulation test for assessment of completeness of vagotomy.
CCKI cells within crypts of Lieberkuhn of duodenum and jejunum.1) Diagnosis of gallbladder dyskinesia.
2) Identification of ampulla of Vater during ERCP.
Endoscopic clearance of choledocholithiasis after ESWL.
SecretinS cells within crypts of Lieberkuhn of duodenum and jejunum.1) Secretin test to diagnose pancreatic exocrine insufficiency.
2) Secretin-enhanced MRCP for the diagnosis of pancreatic divisum, early chronic pancreatitis and exocrine pancreatic insufficiency.
SomatostatinD cells in islets of Langerhans of pancreas and GI tract.Octreotide scan to detect and monitor the progress of treatment of neuroendocrine tumors that have somatostatin receptors.1) Esophageal variceal bleeding
3) Pancreatic fistula
4) Refractory and secretory diarrhea
5) Carcinoid crisis
6) Hepato-renal syndrome
7) VIPoma
8) Acromegaly
9) Sulfonylurea poisoning
MotilinMo cells within crypts of Lieberkuhn of duodenum and jejunum.Motilin receptor agonist (erythromycin) is used off-label for the treatment of gastroparesis.
Ghrelin or lenomorelinGhrelinergic cells in gastric fundus, small intestine, colon, pancreas, lungs, brain.
ObestatinGastric mucosa
GRPSubmucosa and myenteric plexus of stomach and intestine, intrapancreatic ganglia, hypothalamus and brain stem.
GIPK cells in mucosa of duodenum and jejunum.
GLP-1L cells in distal ileum and colon, some in proximal intestine.1) GLP-1 mimetics are used in patients with type II diabetes mellitus.
2) Novel agent for the treatment of NAFLD.
GLP-2L cells in distal ileum and colon.GLP-2 analogue teduglutide is used for the treatment SBS.
GlicentinL cells in intestine
Gastric leptinGastric chief cells.
NeurotensinN cells in ileum and enteric neurons in myenteric plexus.
Substance PMyenteric plexus in gut and vagus nerve.Substance P/NK-1 receptor antagonist aprepitant is used in chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting.
OxyntomodulinL cells in intestine.
UroguanylinEnterochromaffin cells in duodenum and jejunumGC-C receptor agonists linaclotide and plecanatide are used in IBS-C and CIC.